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ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS) - Special Section on Probabilistic Embedded Computing, Volume 12 Issue 2s, May 2013

Introduction to Special Section on Probabilistic Embedded Computing
Christoph Kirsch, Vincent Mooney
Article No.: 86
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465788

Ten Years of Building Broken Chips: The Physics and Engineering of Inexact Computing
Krishna Palem, Avinash Lingamneni
Article No.: 87
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465789

Well over a decade ago, many believed that an engine of growth driving the semiconductor and computing industries---captured nicely by Gordon Moore’s remarkable prophecy (Moore’s law)---was speeding towards a dangerous cliff-edge....

Parallelizing Sequential Programs with Statistical Accuracy Tests
Sasa Misailovic, Deokhwan Kim, Martin Rinard
Article No.: 88
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465790

We present QuickStep, a novel system for parallelizing sequential programs. Unlike standard parallelizing compilers (which are designed to preserve the semantics of the original sequential computation), QuickStep is instead designed to generate...

Exploiting Timing Error Resilience in Processor Architecture
John Sartori, Rakesh Kumar
Article No.: 89
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465791

Escalating variations in modern CMOS designs have become a threat to Moore’s law. In light of the increasing costs of standard worst-case design practices, timing speculation has become a popular approach for dealing with static and dynamic...

Managing the Quality vs. Efficiency Trade-off Using Dynamic Effort Scaling
Vinay K. Chippa, Kaushik Roy, Srimat T. Chakradhar, Anand Raghunathan
Article No.: 90
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465792

Several current and emerging applications do not have a unique result for a given input; rather, functional correctness is defined in terms of output quality. Recently proposed design techniques exploit the inherent resilience of such applications...

Half-Wits: Software Techniques for Low-Voltage Probabilistic Storage on Microcontrollers with NOR Flash Memory
Mastooreh Salajegheh, Yue Wang, Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang, Erik Learned-Miller, Kevin Fu
Article No.: 91
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465793

This work analyzes the stochastic behavior of writing to embedded flash memory at voltages lower than recommended by a microcontroller’s specifications in order to reduce energy consumption. Flash memory integrated within a microcontroller...

Survey of Stochastic Computing
Armin Alaghi, John P. Hayes
Article No.: 92
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465794

Stochastic computing (SC) was proposed in the 1960s as a low-cost alternative to conventional binary computing. It is unique in that it represents and processes information in the form of digitized probabilities. SC employs very low-complexity...

Synthesizing Parsimonious Inexact Circuits through Probabilistic Design Techniques
Avinash Lingamneni, Christian Enz, Krishna Palem, Christian Piguet
Article No.: 93
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465795

The domain of inexact circuit design, in which accuracy of the circuit can be exchanged for substantial cost (energy, delay, and/or area) savings, has been gathering increasing prominence of late owing to a growing desire for reducing...

PROARTIS: Probabilistically Analyzable Real-Time Systems
Francisco J. Cazorla, Eduardo Quiñones, Tullio Vardanega, Liliana Cucu, Benoit Triquet, Guillem Bernat, Emery Berger, Jaume Abella, Franck Wartel, Michael Houston, Luca Santinelli, Leonidas Kosmidis, Code Lo, Dorin Maxim
Article No.: 94
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465796

Static timing analysis is the state-of-the-art practice of ascertaining the timing behavior of current-generation real-time embedded systems. The adoption of more complex hardware to respond to the increasing demand for computing power in...

Probabilistic Temporal Logic Falsification of Cyber-Physical Systems
Houssam Abbas, Georgios Fainekos, Sriram Sankaranarayanan, Franjo Ivančić, Aarti Gupta
Article No.: 95
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465797

We present a Monte-Carlo optimization technique for finding system behaviors that falsify a metric temporal logic (MTL) property. Our approach performs a random walk over the space of system inputs guided by a robustness metric defined by the MTL...

Energy- and Thermal-Aware Video Coding via Encoder/Decoder Workload Balancing
Domenic Forte, Ankur Srivastava
Article No.: 96
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465798

Video coding and compression are essential components of multimedia services but are known to be computationally intensive and energy demanding. Traditional video coding paradigms, predictive and distributed video coding (PVC and DVC), result in...

Hardware-Based Load Value Trace Filtering for On-the-Fly Debugging
Vladimir Uzelac, Aleksandar Milenković
Article No.: 97
DOI: 10.1145/2465787.2465799

Capturing program and data traces during program execution unobtrusively on-the-fly is crucial in debugging and testing of cyber-physical systems. However, tracing a complete program unobtrusively is often cost-prohibitive, requiring large on-chip...