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ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), Volume 15 Issue 1, February 2016

Design and Implementation of Warbler Family of Lightweight Pseudorandom Number Generators for Smart Devices
Kalikinkar Mandal, Xinxin Fan, Guang Gong
Article No.: 1
DOI: 10.1145/2808230

With the advent of ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things (IoT), the security and privacy issues for various smart devices such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and wireless sensor nodes are receiving increased attention from...

Design of a High-Performance CDMA-Based Broadcast-Free Photonic Multi-Core Network on Chip
Soumyajit Poddar, Prasun Ghosal, Hafizur Rahaman
Article No.: 2
DOI: 10.1145/2839301

Present-day focus on multicore research has not only increased computing power but also power- and bandwidth-efficient communication among cores. On-chip communication networks have become popular today because of their low energy use and modular...

Beyond Cross-Section: Spatio-Temporal Reliability Analysis
Thiago Santini, Paolo Rech, Gabriel Luca Nazar, Flávio Rech Wagner
Article No.: 3
DOI: 10.1145/2794148

A computational system employed in safety-critical applications typically has reliability as a primary concern. Thus, the designer focuses on minimizing the device radiation-sensitive area, often leading to performance degradation. In this...

Preaveraging and Carry Propagate Approaches to Side-Channel Analysis of HMAC-SHA256
Catherine H. Gebotys, Brian A. White, Edgar Mateos
Article No.: 4
DOI: 10.1145/2794093

Although HMAC-SHA has been standardized for over a decade, few published attacks on the single-cycle round implementation exist. In this research, new attack techniques are provided, for the first time, (1) to help to discriminate between values...

Dynamic Logging with Dylog in Networked Embedded Systems
Wei Dong, Luyao Luo, Chao Huang
Article No.: 5
DOI: 10.1145/2807698

Event logging is an important technique for networked embedded systems like wireless sensor networks. It can greatly help developers to understand complex system behaviors and diagnose program bugs. Existing logging facilities do not well satisfy...

Power-Aware Design Techniques of Secure Multimode Embedded Systems
Ke Jiang, Petru Eles, Zebo Peng
Article No.: 6
DOI: 10.1145/2801152

Nowadays, embedded systems have been widely used in all types of application areas, some of which belong to the safety and reliability critical domains. The functional correctness and design robustness of the embedded systems involved in such...

Energy-Aware Scheduling for Real-Time Systems: A Survey
Mario Bambagini, Mauro Marinoni, Hakan Aydin, Giorgio Buttazzo
Article No.: 7
DOI: 10.1145/2808231

This article presents a survey of energy-aware scheduling algorithms proposed for real-time systems. The analysis presents the main results starting from the middle 1990s until today, showing how the proposed solutions evolved to address the...

Error Detector Placement for Soft Computing Applications
Anna Thomas, Karthik Pattabiraman
Article No.: 8
DOI: 10.1145/2801154

The scaling of Silicon devices has exacerbated the unreliability of modern computer systems, and power constraints have necessitated the involvement of software in hardware error detection. At the same time, emerging workloads in the form of soft...

TBES: Template-Based Exploration and Synthesis of Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Architectures on FPGA
Youenn Corre, Jean-Philippe Diguet, Dominique Heller, Dominique Blouin, Loïc Lagadec
Article No.: 9
DOI: 10.1145/2816817

This article describes TBES, a software end-to-end environment for synthesizing multitask applications on FPGAs. The implementation follows a template-based approach for creating heterogeneous multiprocessor architectures. Heterogeneity stems from...

Theory and Application of Delay Constraints in Arbiter PUF
Urbi Chatterjee, Rajat Subhra Chakraborty, Hitesh Kapoor, Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
Article No.: 10
DOI: 10.1145/2815621

Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) circuits are often vulnerable to mathematical model-building attacks. We theoretically quantify the advantage provided to an adversary by any training dataset expansion technique along the lines of...

A Cache-Based Flash Translation Layer for TLC-Based Multimedia Storage Devices
Se Jin Kwon
Article No.: 11
DOI: 10.1145/2820614

Current triple-level cell (TLC)-based solids-tate drives used in multimedia storage devices support multichannel access to increase capacity and throughput. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art FTL algorithms must employ selective caching for...

Exploiting Page Correlations for Write Buffering in Page-Mapping Multichannel SSDs
Sheng-Min Huang, Li-Pin Chang
Article No.: 12
DOI: 10.1145/2815622

Advanced solid-state disks (SSDs) have been equipped with page-mapping flash translation layers and multichannel architectures. The SSDs employ a RAM-based write buffer, which delays write requests for reducing write traffic, reorders requests for...

Stable Greedy: Adaptive Garbage Collection for Durable Page-Mapping Multichannel SSDs
Li-Pin Chang, Yu-Syun Liu, Wen-Huei Lin
Article No.: 13
DOI: 10.1145/2820613

Commodity solid state drives (SSDs) have recently begun involving the adoption of powerful controllers for multichannel flash management at the page level. However, many of these models still use primitive garbage-collection algorithms, because...

Feasibility of Fork-Join Real-Time Task Graph Models: Hardness and Algorithms
Jinghao Sun, Nan Guan, Yang Wang, Qingxu Deng, Peng Zeng, Wang Yi
Article No.: 14
DOI: 10.1145/2809780

In the formal analysis of real-time systems, modeling of branching codes and modeling of intratask parallelism structures are two of the most important research topics. These two real-time properties are combined, resulting in the fork-join...

CUDA Leaks: A Detailed Hack for CUDA and a (Partial) Fix
Roberto Di Pietro, Flavio Lombardi, Antonio Villani
Article No.: 15
DOI: 10.1145/2801153

Graphics processing units (GPUs) are increasingly common on desktops, servers, and embedded platforms. In this article, we report on new security issues related to CUDA, which is the most widespread platform for GPU computing. In particular,...

Structure Design of Wireless Sensor Nodes with Energy and Cost Awareness for Multichannel Signal Measurement
Zhenhuan Zhu, S. Olutunde Oyadiji
Article No.: 16
DOI: 10.1145/2790300

This article aims to develop a design pattern of a wireless sensor node working in multichannel signal measurement for effectively lowering energy consumption and cost. The proposed design pattern enables the architecture of a wireless sensor node...

User-Centric Scheduling and Governing on Mobile Devices with big.LITTLE Processors
Pi-Cheng Hsiu, Po-Hsien Tseng, Wei-Ming Chen, Chin-Chiang Pan, Tei-Wei Kuo
Article No.: 17
DOI: 10.1145/2829946

Mobile applications will become progressively more complicated and diverse. Heterogeneous computing architectures like big.LITTLE are a hardware solution that allows mobile devices to combine computing performance and energy efficiency. However,...

Data Flow Transformation for Energy-Efficient Implementation of Givens Rotation--Based QRD
Namita Sharma, Preeti Ranjan Panda, Francky Catthoor, Min Li, Prashant Agrawal
Article No.: 18
DOI: 10.1145/2837025

QR decomposition (QRD), a matrix decomposition algorithm widely used in embedded application domain, can be realized in a large number of valid processing sequences that differ significantly in the number of memory accesses and computations, and...

A Logic-Based Benders Decomposition Approach for Mapping Applications on Heterogeneous Multicore Platforms
Andreas Emeretlis, George Theodoridis, Panayiotis Alefragis, Nikolaos Voros
Article No.: 19
DOI: 10.1145/2838733

The development of efficient methods for mapping applications on heterogeneous multicore platforms is a key issue in the field of embedded systems. In this article, a novel approach based on the Logic-Based Benders decomposition principle is...

Software-Based Selective Validation Techniques for Robust CGRAs Against Soft Errors
Yohan Ko, Jihoon Kang, Jongwon Lee, Yongjoo Kim, Joonhyun Kim, Hwisoo So, Kyoungwoo Lee, Yunheung Paek
Article No.: 20
DOI: 10.1145/2843943

Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architectures (CGRAs) are drawing significant attention since they promise both performances with parallelism and flexibility with reconfiguration. Soft errors (or transient faults) are becoming a serious design...

Attack-Resilient Sensor Fusion for Safety-Critical Cyber-Physical Systems
Radoslav Ivanov, Miroslav Pajic, Insup Lee
Article No.: 21
DOI: 10.1145/2847418

This article focuses on the design of safe and attack-resilient Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) equipped with multiple sensors measuring the same physical variable. A malicious attacker may be able to disrupt system performance through compromising a...