Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)


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Editorial: Cyber Security, IoT, Block Chains—Risks and Opportunities
Sandeep K. Shukla
Article No.: 62
DOI: 10.1145/3087913

Section: Editorial

Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Embedded Computing for IoT
Marilyn Wolf, Jason Xue
Article No.: 63
DOI: 10.1145/3065713

Low-Cost Standard Signatures for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks
Giuseppe Ateniese, Giuseppe Bianchi, Angelo T. Capossele, Chiara Petrioli, Dora Spenza
Article No.: 64
DOI: 10.1145/2994603

This work is motivated by a general question: can micro-scale energy-harvesting techniques be exploited to support low-cost standard security solutions on resource-constrained devices? We focus on guaranteeing integrity and authentication...

Energy-Aware Memory Mapping for Hybrid FRAM-SRAM MCUs in Intermittently-Powered IoT Devices
Hrishikesh Jayakumar, Arnab Raha, Jacob R. Stevens, Vijay Raghunathan
Article No.: 65
DOI: 10.1145/2983628

Forecasts project that by 2020, there will be around 50 billion devices connected to the Internet of Things (IoT), most of which will operate untethered and unplugged. While environmental energy harvesting is a promising solution to power these...

Axiom: DTLS-Based Secure IoT Group Communication
Marco Tiloca, Kirill Nikitin, Shahid Raza
Article No.: 66
DOI: 10.1145/3047413

This article presents Axiom, a DTLS-based approach to efficiently secure multicast group communication among IoT-constrained devices. Axiom provides an adaptation of the DTLS record layer, relies on key material commonly shared among the group...

A PUF-Based Secure Communication Protocol for IoT
Urbi Chatterjee, Rajat Subhra Chakraborty, Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
Article No.: 67
DOI: 10.1145/3005715

Security features are of paramount importance for the Internet of Things (IoT), and implementations are challenging given the resource-constrained IoT setup. We have developed a lightweight identity-based cryptosystem suitable for IoT to enable...

Preserving Smart Sink-Location Privacy with Delay Guaranteed Routing Scheme for WSNs
Anfeng Liu, Xiao Liu, Zhipeng Tang, Laurence T. Yang, Zili Shao
Article No.: 68
DOI: 10.1145/2990500

A Semi Random Circle routing for mobile Sink joint Ray Routing for data (SRCRR) scheme is proposed for preserving sink-location privacy with a delay guaranteed. In the SRCRR scheme, the data are directionally routed along ray paths and stored at...

Data-Driven Synchronization for Internet-of-Things Systems
Terrell R. Bennett, Nicholas Gans, Roozbeh Jafari
Article No.: 69
DOI: 10.1145/2983627

The Internet of Things (IoT) is fueled by the growth of sensors, actuators, and services that collect and process raw sensor data. Wearable and environmental sensors will be a major component of the IoT and provide context about people and...

A Multi-Quadcopter Cooperative Cyber-Physical System for Timely Air Pollution Localization
Zhaoyan Shen, Zhijian He, Shuai Li, Qixin Wang, Zili Shao
Article No.: 70
DOI: 10.1145/3005716

We propose a cyber-physical system of unmanned quadcopters to locate air pollution sources in a timely manner. The system consists of a physical part and a cyber part. The physical part includes unmanned quadcopters equipped with multiple sensors....

Seamless Vision-assisted Placement Calibration for Wearable Inertial Sensors
Jian Wu, Roozbeh Jafari
Article No.: 71
DOI: 10.1145/3023364

Wearable inertial devices are being widely used in the applications of activity tracking, health care, and professional sports, and their usage is on a rapid rise. Signal processing algorithms for these devices are often designed to work with a...

Section: Editorial

Guest Editorial for ACM TECS Special Issue on Effective Divide-and-Conquer, Incremental, or Distributed Mechanisms of Embedded Designs for Extremely Big Data in Large-Scale Devices
Bo-Wei Chen, Wen Ji, Zhu Li
Article No.: 72
DOI: 10.1145/3068457

Distributed Multi-Representative Re-Fusion Approach for Heterogeneous Sensing Data Collection
Anfeng Liu, Xiao Liu, Tianyi Wei, Laurence T. Yang, Seungmin (Charlie) Rho, Anand Paul
Article No.: 73
DOI: 10.1145/2974021

A multi-representative re-fusion (MRRF) approximate data collection approach is proposed in which multiple nodes with similar readings form a data coverage set (DCS). The reading value of the DCS is represented by an R-node. The set near the Sink...

A Load-Balancing Divide-and-Conquer SVM Solver
Xiaogang Chen, Z. Jane Wang, Xiangyang Ji
Article No.: 74
DOI: 10.1145/3005347

Scaling up kernel support vector machine (SVM) training has been an important topic in recent years. Despite its theoretical elegance, training kernel SVM is impractical when facing millions of data. The divide-and-conquer (DC) strategy is a...

Parallel Sparse Subspace Clustering via Joint Sample and Parameter Blockwise Partition
Bo Liu, Xiao-Tong Yuan, Yang Yu, Qingshan Liu, Dimitris N. Metaxas
Article No.: 75
DOI: 10.1145/3063316

Sparse subspace clustering (SSC) is a classical method to cluster data with specific subspace structure for each group. It has many desirable theoretical properties and has been shown to be effective in various applications. However, under the...

Collaborative PCA/DCA Learning Methods for Compressive Privacy
Sun-Yuan Kung, Thee Chanyaswad, J. Morris Chang, Peiyuan Wu
Article No.: 76
DOI: 10.1145/2996460

In the Internet era, the data being collected on consumers like us are growing exponentially, and attacks on our privacy are becoming a real threat. To better ensure our privacy, it is safer to let the data owner control the data to be uploaded to...

Section: Editorial

Corrections to and Discussion of “Implementation and Evaluation of Mixed-criticality Scheduling Approaches for Sporadic Tasks”
Tom Fleming, Huang-Ming Huang, Alan Burns, Chris Gill, Sanjoy Baruah, Chenyang Lu
Article No.: 77
DOI: 10.1145/2974020

The AMC-IA mixed-criticality scheduling analysis was proposed as an improvement to the AMC-MAX adaptive mixed-criticality scheduling analysis. However, we have identified several necessary corrections to the AMC-IA analysis. In this article, we...

Hardware Architectures for Embedded Speaker Recognition Applications: A Survey
Hasna Bouraoui, Chadlia Jerad, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Nejib Ben Hadj-Alouane
Article No.: 78
DOI: 10.1145/2975161

Authentication technologies based on biometrics, such as speaker recognition, are attracting more and more interest thanks to the elevated level of security offered by these technologies. Despite offering many advantages, such as remote use and...

AdaFT: A Framework for Adaptive Fault Tolerance for Cyber-Physical Systems
Ye Xu, Israel Koren, C. Mani Krishna
Article No.: 79
DOI: 10.1145/2980763

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) frequently have to use massive redundancy to meet application requirements for high reliability. While such redundancy is required, it can be activated adaptively, based on the current state of the controlled plant....

Accelerators for Breast Cancer Detection
Daniele Jahier Pagliari, Mario R. Casu, Luca P. Carloni
Article No.: 80
DOI: 10.1145/2983630

Algorithms used in microwave imaging for breast cancer detection require hardware acceleration to speed up execution time and reduce power consumption. In this article, we present the hardware implementation of two accelerators for two alternative...

On Static Binary Translation of ARM/Thumb Mixed ISA Binaries
Jiunn-Yeu Chen, Wuu Yang, Wei-Chung Hsu, Bor-Yeh Shen, Quan-Huei Ou
Article No.: 81
DOI: 10.1145/2996458

Code discovery has been a main challenge for static binary translation, especially when the source instruction set architecture has variable-length instructions, such as the x86 architectures. Due to embedded data such as PC (program...

An Indoor Test Methodology for Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks
Wilson M. Tan, Paul Sullivan, Hamish Watson, Joanna Slota-Newson, Stephen A. Jarvis
Article No.: 82
DOI: 10.1145/2994604

Repeatable and accurate tests are important when designing hardware and algorithms for solar-powered wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Since no two days are exactly alike with regard to energy harvesting, tests must be carried out indoors. Solar...

On Space Utilization Enhancement of File Systems for Embedded Storage Systems
Tseng-Yi Chen, Yuan-Hao Chang, Shuo-Han Chen, Nien-I Hsu, Hsin-Wen Wei, Wei-Kuan Shih
Article No.: 83
DOI: 10.1145/2820488

Since the mid-2000s, mobile/embedded computing systems conventionally have limited computing power, Random Access Memory (RAM) space, and storage capacity due to the consideration of their cost, energy consumption, and physical size. Recently,...

Serial Arithmetic Strategies for Improving FPGA Throughput
Aaron Landy, Greg Stitt
Article No.: 84
DOI: 10.1145/2996459

Serial arithmetic has been shown to offer attractive advantages in area for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) datapaths but suffers from a significant reduction in throughput compared to traditional bit-parallel designs. In this work, we...

Schedulability of Bounded-Rate Multimode Systems
Rajeev Alur, Vojtěch Forejt, Salar Moarref, Ashutosh Trivedi
Article No.: 85
DOI: 10.1145/2996797

Bounded-rate multimode systems are hybrid systems that switch freely among a finite set of modes, and whose dynamics are specified by a finite number of real-valued variables with mode-dependent rates that vary within given bounded sets. The...

DMS-Based Energy Optimizations for Clustered WSNs
Maryam Bandari, Robert Simon, Hakan Aydin
Article No.: 86
DOI: 10.1145/2998179

In this article, we consider clustered wireless sensor networks where the nodes harvest energy from the environment. We target performance-sensitive applications that have to collectively send their information to a cluster head by a predefined...

Fault-Tolerant Preemptive Aperiodic RT Scheduling by Supervisory Control of TDES on Multiprocessors
Rajesh Devaraj, Arnab Sarkar, Santosh Biswas
Article No.: 87
DOI: 10.1145/3012278

Safety-critical real-time systems must meet stringent timing and fault-tolerance requirements. This article proposes a methodology for synthesizing an optimal preemptive multiprocessor aperiodic task scheduler using a formal supervisory control...

Configurable Detection of SDC-causing Errors in Programs
Qining Lu, Guanpeng Li, Karthik Pattabiraman, Meeta S. Gupta, Jude A. Rivers
Article No.: 88
DOI: 10.1145/3014586

Silent Data Corruption (SDC) is a serious reliability issue in many domains, including embedded systems. However, current protection techniques are brittle and do not allow programmers to trade off performance for SDC coverage. Further, many...

An FPGA-Based Architecture for High-Speed Compressed Signal Reconstruction
Guoxian Huang, Lei Wang
Article No.: 89
DOI: 10.1145/3056481

Compressive Sensing (CS) is an emerging research area that allows efficient signal acquisition under the sub-Nyquist rate while still promising reliable data recovery. However, practical applications of CS in hardware platforms are limited as...

LiBrA-CAN: Lightweight Broadcast Authentication for Controller Area Networks
Bogdan Groza, Stefan Murvay, Anthony Van Herrewege, Ingrid Verbauwhede
Article No.: 90
DOI: 10.1145/3056506

Despite realistic concerns, security is still absent from vehicular buses such as the widely used Controller Area Network (CAN). We design an efficient protocol based on efficient symmetric primitives, taking advantage of two innovative...