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Protecting Caches from Soft Errors: A Microarchitect’s Perspective
Yohan Ko, Reiley Jeyapaul, Youngbin Kim, Kyoungwoo Lee, Aviral Shrivastava
Article No.: 93
Soft error is one of the most important design concerns in modern embedded systems with aggressive technology scaling. Among various microarchitectural components in a processor, cache is the most susceptible component to soft errors. Error...
A Novel Method for Online Detection of Faults Affecting Execution-Time in Multicore-Based Systems
Stefano Esposito, Massimo Violante, Marco Sozzi, Marco Terrone, Massimo Traversone
Article No.: 94
This article proposes a bounded interference method, based on statistical evaluations, for online detection and tolerance of any fault capable of causing a deadline miss. The proposed method requires data that can be gathered during the profiling...
Area, Throughput, and Power Trade-Offs for FPGA- and ASIC-Based Execution Stream Compression
Maria Isabel Mera, Jonah Caplan, Seyyed Hasan Mozafari, Brett H. Meyer, Peter Milder
Article No.: 96
An emerging trend in safety-critical computer system design is the use of compression—for example, using cyclic redundancy check (CRC) or Fletcher checksum (FC)—to reduce the state that must be compared to verify correct redundant...
Section: Special Issue on Secure and Fault-Tolerant Embedded Computing
Formal Model-Based Synthesis of Application-Specific Static RTOS
Kabland Toussaint Gautier Tigori, Jean-Luc Béchennec, Sébastien Faucou, Olivier Henri Roux
Article No.: 97
In an embedded system, the specialization of the code of the real-time operating system (RTOS) according to the requirements of the application allows one to remove unused services and other sources of dead code from the binary program. The...
The Perfect Getaway: Using Escape Analysis in Embedded Real-Time Systems
Isabella Stilkerich, Clemens Lang, Christoph Erhardt, Christian Bay, Michael Stilkerich
Article No.: 99
The use of a managed, type-safe language such as Java in real-time and embedded systems offers productivity and, in particular, safety and dependability benefits at a reasonable cost. It has been shown for commodity systems that Escape Analysis...
PMC: A Requirement-Aware DRAM Controller for Multicore Mixed Criticality Systems
Mohamed Hassan, Hiren Patel, Rodolfo Pellizzoni
Article No.: 100
We propose a novel approach to schedule memory requests in Mixed Criticality Systems (MCS). This approach supports an arbitrary number of criticality levels by enabling the MCS designer to specify memory requirements per task. It retains locality...
Refining Cache Behavior Prediction Using Cache Miss Paths
Kartik Nagar, Y. N. Srikant
Article No.: 103
Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) is an important metric for programs running on real-time systems, and finding precise estimates of a program’s WCET is crucial to avoid wastage of hardware resources and to improve the schedulability of task...
Automatic Synthesis of Switching Controllers for Linear Hybrid Systems: Reachability Control
Massimo Benerecetti, Marco Faella
Article No.: 104
We consider the problem of computing the controllable region of a Linear Hybrid Automaton with controllable and uncontrollable transitions, w.r.t. a reachability objective. We provide an algorithm for the finite-horizon version of the problem,...
Task Transition Scheduling for Data-Adaptable Systems
Nathan Sandoval, Casey Mackin, Sean Whitsitt, Vijay Shankar Gopinath, Sachidanand Mahadevan, Andrew Milakovich, Kyle Merry, Jonathan Sprinkle, Roman Lysecky
Article No.: 105
Data-adaptable embedded systems operate on a variety of data streams, which requires a large degree of configurability and adaptability to support runtime changes in data stream inputs. Data-adaptable reconfigurable embedded systems, when...
Real-Time Simulation Support for Runtime Verification of Cyber-Physical Systems
Xi Zheng, Christine Julien, Hongxu Chen, Rodion Podorozhny, Franck Cassez
Article No.: 106
In Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), cyber and physical components must work seamlessly in tandem. Runtime verification of CPS is essential yet very difficult, due to deployment environments that are expensive, dangerous, or simply impossible to use...
Dynamic Power and Energy Management for Energy Harvesting Nonvolatile Processor Systems
Kaisheng Ma, Xueqing Li, Huichu Liu, Xiao Sheng, Yiqun Wang, Karthik Swaminathan, Yongpan Liu, Yuan Xie, John Sampson, Vijaykrishnan Narayanan
Article No.: 107
Self-powered systems running on scavenged energy will be a key enabler for pervasive computing across the Internet of Things. The variability of input power in energy-harvesting systems limits the effectiveness of static optimizations aimed at...
Lightweight Architectures for Reliable and Fault Detection Simon and Speck Cryptographic Algorithms on FPGA
Prashant Ahir, Mehran Mozaffari-Kermani, Reza Azarderakhsh
Article No.: 109
The widespread use of sensitive and constrained applications necessitates lightweight (low-power and low-area) algorithms developed for constrained nano-devices. However, nearly all of such algorithms are optimized for platform-based performance...
Exploiting Multiple Write Modes of Nonvolatile Main Memory in Embedded Systems
Chen Pan, Mimi Xie, Chengmo Yang, Yiran Chen, Jingtong Hu
Article No.: 110
Existing Nonvolatile Memories (NVMs) have many attractive features to be the main memory of embedded systems. These features include low power, high density, and better scalability. Recently, Multilevel Cell (MLC) NVM has gained more and more...
WCET-Aware Function-Level Dynamic Code Management on Scratchpad Memory
Yooseong Kim, David Broman, Aviral Shrivastava
Article No.: 112
Scratchpad memory (SPM) is a promising on-chip memory choice in real-time and cyber-physical systems where timing is of the utmost importance. SPM has time-predictable characteristics since its data movement between the SPM and the main memory is...