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ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS) - Special Issue on MEMCODE 2015 and Regular Papers (Diamonds), Volume 17 Issue 2, April 2018

Editorial: Industry 4.0 – A Confluence of Embedded Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Robotics and Security
Sandeep K. Shukla
Article No.: 29
DOI: 10.1145/3194944

Section: Special Issue on MEMCODE 2015

Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Formal Methods and Models for System Design
Elizabeth Leonard
Article No.: 30
DOI: 10.1145/3162079

Symbolic Multi-Level Loop Mapping of Loop Programs for Massively Parallel Processor Arrays
Alexandru Tanase, Michael Witterauf, Jürgen Teich, Frank Hannig
Article No.: 31
DOI: 10.1145/3092952

Today’s MPSoCs (multiprocessor systems-on-chip) have brought up massively parallel processor array accelerators that may achieve a high computational efficiency by exploiting multiple levels of parallelism and different memory hierarchies....

Model and Program Repair via SAT Solving
Paul C. Attie, Kinan Dak Al Bab, Mouhammad Sakr
Article No.: 32
DOI: 10.1145/3147426

We consider the subtractive model repair problem: given a finite Kripke structure M and a CTL formula η, determine if M contains a substructure M that satisfies η. Thus, M can be...

SCEst: Sequentially Constructive Esterel
Steven Smyth, Christian Motika, Karsten Rathlev, Reinhard Von Hanxleden, Michael Mendler
Article No.: 33
DOI: 10.1145/3063129

The synchronous language Esterel provides determinate concurrency for reactive systems. Determinacy is ensured by the signal coherence rule, which demands that signals have a stable value throughout one reaction cycle. This is natural for...

Formal Requirement Debugging for Testing and Verification of Cyber-Physical Systems
Adel Dokhanchi, Bardh Hoxha, Georgios Fainekos
Article No.: 34
DOI: 10.1145/3147451

A framework for the elicitation and debugging of formal specifications for Cyber-Physical Systems is presented. The elicitation of specifications is handled through a graphical interface. Two debugging algorithms are presented. The first checks...

Section: Regular Papers

Fixed-Priority Scheduling for Two-Phase Mixed-Criticality Systems
Zheng Li, Shuibing He
Article No.: 35
DOI: 10.1145/3105921

In this article, a two-phase execution model is proposed for mixed-criticality (MC) tasks. Different from traditional MC tasks with a computation phase only, the two-phase execution model requires a memory-access phase first to fetch the...

Effective Verification for Low-Level Software with Competing Interrupts
Lihao Liang, Tom Melham, Daniel Kroening, Peter Schrammel, Michael Tautschnig
Article No.: 36
DOI: 10.1145/3147432

Interrupt-driven software is difficult to test and debug, especially when interrupts can be nested and subject to priorities. Interrupts can arrive at arbitrary times, leading to an exponential blow-up in the number of cases to consider. We...

Exploiting Sparsity to Accelerate Fully Connected Layers of CNN-Based Applications on Mobile SoCs
Xinfeng Xie, Dayou Du, Qian Li, Yun Liang, Wai Teng Tang, Zhong Liang Ong, Mian Lu, Huynh Phung Huynh, Rick Siow Mong Goh
Article No.: 37
DOI: 10.1145/3122788

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are widely employed in many image recognition applications. With the proliferation of embedded and mobile devices, such applications are becoming commonplace on mobile devices. Network pruning is a commonly...

Time and Sequence Integrated Runtime Anomaly Detection for Embedded Systems
Sixing Lu, Roman Lysecky
Article No.: 38
DOI: 10.1145/3122785

Network-connected embedded systems grow on a large scale as a critical part of Internet of Things, and these systems are under the risk of increasing malware. Anomaly-based detection methods can detect malware in embedded systems effectively and...

Symbolic WCET Computation
Clément Ballabriga, Julien Forget, Giuseppe Lipari
Article No.: 39
DOI: 10.1145/3147413

Parametric Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis of a sequential program produces a formula that represents the worst-case execution time of the program, where parameters of the formula are user-defined parameters of the program (as loop...

Analysis and Design of Adders for Approximate Computing
Sunil Dutt, Sukumar Nandi, Gaurav Trivedi
Article No.: 40
DOI: 10.1145/3131274

The concept of approximate computing, that is, to sacrifice computation quality for computation efforts, has recently emerged as a promising design approach. Over the past decade, several research works have explored approximate computing at both...

Runtime Performance and Power Optimization of Parallel Disparity Estimation on Many-Core Platforms
Charles Leech, Charan Kumar, Amit Acharyya, Sheng Yang, Geoff V. Merrett, Bashir M. Al-Hashimi
Article No.: 41
DOI: 10.1145/3133560

This article investigates the use of many-core systems to execute the disparity estimation algorithm, used in stereo vision applications, as these systems can provide flexibility between performance scaling and power consumption. We present a...

Fault Recovery Time Analysis for Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architectures
Ganghee Lee, Ediz Cetin, Oliver Diessel
Article No.: 42
DOI: 10.1145/3140944

Coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures (CGRAs) have drawn increasing attention due to their performance and flexibility advantages. Typically, CGRAs incorporate many processing elements in the form of an array, which is suitable for...

Coverage Preservation with Rapid Forwarding in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks for Critical Rare Events
David C. Harrison, Winston K. G. Seah, Ramesh Rayudu
Article No.: 43
DOI: 10.1145/3140961

Wireless sensor networks for rarely occurring critical events must maintain sensing coverage and low-latency network connectivity to ensure event detection and subsequent rapid propagation of notification messages. Few algorithms have been...

Energy Cooperation in Battery-Free Wireless Communications with Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting
He Li, Kaoru Ota, Mianxiong Dong
Article No.: 44
DOI: 10.1145/3141249

Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting techniques are becoming a potential method to power battery-free wireless networks. In RF energy harvesting communications, energy cooperation enables shaping and optimization of the energy arrivals at the...

Synergistic CPU-GPU Frequency Capping for Energy-Efficient Mobile Games
Jurn-Gyu Park, Chen-Ying Hsieh, Nikil Dutt, Sung-Soo Lim
Article No.: 45
DOI: 10.1145/3145337

Mobile platforms are increasingly using Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip (HMPSoCs) with differentiated processing cores and GPUs to achieve high performance for graphics-intensive applications such as mobile games. Traditionally,...

Mining Timed Regular Specifications from System Traces
Apurva Narayan, Greta Cutulenco, Yogi Joshi, Sebastian Fischmeister
Article No.: 46
DOI: 10.1145/3147660

Temporal properties define the order of occurrence and timing constraints on event occurrence. Such specifications are important for safety-critical real-time systems. We propose a framework for automatically mining temporal properties that are in...